Skiing is a group of recreational activities using skis as equipment for traveling over snow. Skis are used in conjunction with boots that connect to the ski with use of a binding. Skiing can be grouped into two general categories. The older of the two disciplines originated in Scandinavia and uses free-heel bindings that attach at the toes of the skier's boots but not at the heels. Types of Nordic skiing include cross-country, ski jumping, and Telemark. Alpine skiing (more often called "downhill skiing"), originated in the European Alps, and is characterized by fixed-heel bindings that attach at both the toe and the heel of the skier's boot.
Snowboarding is a sport that involves descending a slope that is covered with snow on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet using a special boot set onto mounted binding. The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding, surfing and skiing. It was developed in the U.S.A. in the 1960s and the 1970s and became a Winter Olympic Sport in 1998.
Ski jumping is a sport in which skiers go down a take-off ramp, jump and attempt to land as far as possible down the hill below. In addition to the length of the jump, judges give points for style. The skis used for ski jumping are wide and long(260 to 275 centimetres(100 to 108 in)). Ski jumping is predominantly a winter sport, performed on snow, and is part of the Winter Olympic Games, but can also be performed in summer on artificial surfaces - porcelain or frost rail track on the inrun, plastic on the landing hill.
The Cross-country skiing venue is located at the Alpensia Biathlon Centre. The stadium, located 749m above sea level, consists of spectator seats, operational building, field of play, ski test area, warm-up area, TV-compound and so on. As the start area, it has an underground passage for athletes and officials. The Gangwon provincial cross-country skiing course had been used as a competition venue and training facility for Korean athletes from 1998 to 2004. At the same time, the venue hosted the 1999 Gangwon Asian Winter Games. Since its transformation into the Alpensia Nordic Centre in 2007, it has been continuously used as a year round competition and training facility for athletes. In off seasons, the venue is used as public golf courses. Cross-country skiing is a winter sport in which participants propel themselves across snow-covered terrain using skis and poles. It is popular in many countries with large snowfields, primarily Northern Europe, Canada, and Alaska. Cross-country skiing is a part of the Nordic skiing sport family, which also includes ski jumping, and a combination sport of cross-country skiing and ski jumping called Nordic combined. Free-technique cross-country skiing is also the method of locomotion in the combination sport of Biathlon, which adds rifle marksmanship to skiing. Another combination sport is ski-orienteering, which adds the skill of map navigation along snow trails and tracks. Related sports are backcountry skiing and Telemark skiing.
Biathlon is a term used to describe any sporting event made up of two disciplines. However, biathlon usually refers specifically to the winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. As PyeongChang decided to bid for the Olympic Winter Games, it planned to renovate the biathlon course. The remodeling project was specified under the Alpensia Resort master plan in close consultation with experts from the International Biathlon Union(IBU). The construction started in May, 2005 and was completed in December, 2007. Each of the national and regional governments financed 50% of the construction cost, in total of USD 13.7 million. The upgraded biathlon venue secured A-license from the IBU in February, 2008. The Gangwon Provincial Biathlon Course had been used as a competition venue and training facility for Korean athletes from 1998 to 2004. At that time, the venue hosted two big international competitions: the 1999 Gangwon Asian Winter Games and the 2004 Biathlon Asian Championships. Since its transformation into the Alpensia Biathlon Centre in 2007, it has been continuously used as a year-round competition and training facility for athletes. In summer, the 2.5km section covered with asphalt concrete is used for events and training, and other sections as public golf courses. The Alpensia Biathlon Centre staged the 2008 IBU Biathlon World Cup and 2009 IBU Biathlon World Championships.
Figure skating is an Olympic sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform spins, jumps, footwork and other intricate and challenging moves on ice skates. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level(senior), and at local, national, and international competitions. The International Skating Union(ISU) regulates international figure skating judging and competitions. Figure skating is an official event in the Winter Olympic Games.
Speed skating, or speedskating is a competitive form of ice skating in which the competitors race each other in traveling a certain distance on skates. There are two types of speed skating. One is long track speed skating and the other is short track speed skating.
Long track speed skating
The standard rink for long track is 400 meters long, but tracks of 200, 250 and 333⅓ meters are used occasionally. It is one of two Olympic forms of the sport and the one with the longer history. The sport enjoys large popularity in the Netherlands and Norway. There are top international rinks in a number of other countries, including Canada, the United States, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea and Russia.
Short track speed skating
Short track skating takes place on a smaller rink, normally the size of an ice hockey rink. Distances are shorter than long track racing, with the longest Olympic race being 3000meters. Races are usually held as knockouts, with the best two in heats of four or five qualifying for the final race, where medals are awarded. Disqualifications and falls are not uncommon. Although this form of speed skating is newer, it is growing faster than long track speed skating, largely because short track can be done on a regular ice rink rather than a long track oval.
Ice hockey is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a punk into the opposing team's goal. It is a fast-paced physical sport. Ice hockey is most popular in areas that are sufficiently cold for natural reliable seasonal ice cover, such as Canada, the Czech Republic, Latvia, the Nordic countries(especially Finland and Sweden), The United States, Russia, Slovakia, Germany, Austria and Switzerland. With the advent of indoor artificial ice rinks it has become a year-round pastime in these areas. Ice hockey is one of the four major North American professional sports. Worldwide the National Hockey League(NHL) is the highest level for men and both the Canadian Women's Hockey League(CWHL) and the Western Women's Hockey League(WWHL) are the highest levels for women. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada, where the game enjoys immense popularity.
Bobsleigh & Skeleton & Luge
Bobsleigh/Skeleton/Luge Starting Centre is located at the Alpensia. Starting Centre and subsidiary Facilitie are followed : The length of Bobsleigh/Skeleton Starting Centre is 120m and breadth is 3m, the length of Luge Starting Centre is 110m and breadth is 1.5m
Bobsleigh or bobsled is a winter sport in which teams of two or four make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sled. The timed runs are combined to calculate the final score. Runs begin from a standing start, with the crew pushing the sled for up to 50 meters before boarding. The runners of the sled follow grooves in the ice for this distance, so steering is unnecessary until after the sleigh exits the starting area. Races can be lost in the initial push but are rarely won there. Over the rest of the course, the sleigh's speed depends on its weight, aerodynamics, runners, the condition of the ice, and the skill of the driver.
Skeleton is a fast winter sliding sport in which an individual person rides a small sled down a frozen track while lying face down, during which athletes experience forces up to 5g-force. It originated in St. Moritz, Switzerland as a spin-off from the popular British sport of Cresta Sledding. While skeleton "sliders" use equipment similar to that of cresta "riders", the two sports are different: while skeleton is run on the same track used by bobsleds and luge, cresta is run on cresta-specific sledding tracks only. Neither the skeleton sled or Cresta toboggan have a steering or braking mechanism although the cresta riders use rakes on their boots in addition to shifting body weight to help steer and brake.
A Luge is a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine (face up) and feet-first. Steering is done by flexing the sled's runners with the calf of each leg or exerting opposite shoulder pressure to the seat. Of the three Olympic sliding sports, which include bobsleigh and skeleton, luge is the fastest and most dangerous. Lugers can reach speeds of 140 km per hour (87 mph). Lugers compete against a timer and are timed to a thousandth of a second, making luge one of the most precisely timed sports in the world. The first recorded use of the term "luge" is 1905, from the Savoy/Swiss dialect of French "luge" meaning "small coasting sled" and is possibly from a Gaulish word with the same root as English sled.
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones across a sheet of ice towards a target area. It is related to bowls, boule and shuffleboard. Two teams, each of four players, take turns sliding heavy, polished granite stones across the ice curling sheet towards the house, a circular target marked on the ice. Each team has eight stones. The purpose is to accumulate the highest score for a game, points being scored for the stones resting closest to the centre of the house at the conclusion of each end, which is completed when both teams have thrown all of their stones. A game may consist of ten or eight ends.